• Dyslexia Guidelines

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

    • Adopted by the IDA Board, November 2002.
    • This definition is also used by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development   (NICHD), 2002
    The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
    • Difficulty reading real words in isolation
    • Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words
    • Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading (lack of reading fluency)
    • Difficulty with learning to spell
    Dyslexia Handbook 
    • The reading/spelling characteristics are the result of difficulty with the following:
    • The development of phonological awareness, including segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words
    •  Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds
    •  Phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory)
    •  Rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet
    Secondary consequences of dyslexia may include the following
    • Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension
    • Variable difficulty with aspects of written composition
    • A limited amount of time spent in reading activities